Tuesday, 25 March 2014

Magento Interview Questions and Answers Part 2

Q 1. Difference between EAV and flat model

Ans.

EAV is entity attribute value database model, where data is fully in normalized form. Each column data value is stored in their respective data type table. Example, for a product, product ID is stored in catalog_product_entity_int table, product name in catalog_product_entity_varchar, product price in catalog_product_entity_decimal, product created date in catalog_product_entity_datetime and product description in catalog_product_entity_text table. EAV is complex as it joins 5-6 tables even if you want to get just one product’s details. Columns are called attributes in EAV.
Flat model uses just one table, so it’s not normalized and uses more database space. It clears the EAV overhead, but not good for dynamic requirements where you may have to add more columns in database table in future. It’s good when comes to performance, as it will only require one query to load whole product instead of joining 5-6 tables to get just one product’s details. Columns are called fields in flat model.


Q 2. Is it mandatory to give Namespace while creating custom module in Magento?

Ans.

No

Q 3. How will you add/remove content from core’s system.xml file?

Ans.

<config>
    <sections>
        <catalog>
            <groups>
                <frontend>
                    <label>Overriding Catalog Frontend in system config</label>
                </frontend>
            </groups>
        </catalog>
    </sections>
</config>

<config>
   <sections>
        <payment>
            <groups>
                <cashondelivery>
                    <fields>
                        <!--changing cashondelivery payment method settings-->
                    </fields>
                </cashondelivery>
            </groups>
         </payment>
    </sections>
</config>

Q 4.Can you have more than one Grid in a module?

Ans. Yes

Q 5.How will you join flat table and EAV table in Magento?

Ans.

Joining tables in Magento when it comes to EAV with Flat table is quite complicated. Consider you want to join sales_flat_order table with customer EAV tables to get Customer’s firstname and lastname, it becomes difficult as customer’s name comes from customer_entity_varchar table.

Below code will join sales order flat table with customer EAV to get customer’s full name in the collection along with all the order details.
  

$coll = Mage::getModel('sales/order')->getCollection();

$fn = Mage::getModel('eav/entity_attribute')->loadByCode('1', 'firstname');
$ln = Mage::getModel('eav/entity_attribute')->loadByCode('1', 'lastname');

$coll->getSelect()
    ->join(array('ce1' => 'customer_entity_varchar'), 'ce1.entity_id=main_table.customer_id', array('firstname' => 'value'))
    ->where('ce1.attribute_id='.$fn->getAttributeId()) 
    ->join(array('ce2' => 'customer_entity_varchar'), 'ce2.entity_id=main_table.customer_id', array('lastname' => 'value'))
    ->where('ce2.attribute_id='.$ln->getAttributeId()) 
    ->columns(new Zend_Db_Expr("CONCAT(`ce1`.`value`, ' ',`ce2`.`value`) AS fullname"));

print_r($coll->getData());

Q 6.How will you enable maintenance mode of your Magento website?

Ans.

If you want your Magento website to show in maintenance mode, you will have to do two things.

1. Create a file name maintenance.flag in your magento root directory. Contents under this file doesn’t matter, you can keep it empty.
2. Change the maintenance file (located in magento root -> errors -> default directory) to show proper message when user visits your website.  




Q 7.What are “magic methods” in Magento?


Ans.
 
Magento uses __call(), __get(), __set(), __uns(), __has(), __isset(), __toString(), __construct(), etc. magic methods. You can find more details inside class Varien_Object
For more information about magic methods: http://php.net/manual/en/language.oop5.magic.php


Q 8.How many database tables will Magento create when you make a new EAV module?

Ans.

Magento creates 6 tables when you create new EAV module. Tables: module, module_datetime, module_decimal, module_int, module_text and module_varchar. one is the main entity table, and rest 5 tables which holds attribute’s data in different data types. So that integer values will go to module_int table, price values to module_decimal, etc.

Q 9.Where will you write your module’s business logic in Magento?

Ans.

inside Model

Q 10. Explain different types of sessions in Magento (e.g. customer/session, checkout/session, core/session) and the reason why you store data in different session types? 

Ans.

Customer sessions stores data related to customer, checkout session stores data related to quote and order. They are actuall under one session in an array. So firstname in customer/session will be $_SESSION['customer']['firstname'] and cart items count in checkout/session will be $_SESSION['checkout']['items_count']. The reason Magento uses session types separately is because once the order gets placed, the checkout session data information should get flushed which can be easily done by just unsetting $_SESSION['checkout'] session variable. So that the session is not cleared, just session data containing checkout information is cleared and rest all the session types are still intact.

Q 11.What are the commonly used block types? What is the special in core/text_list block type.

Ans.

Commonly used block types: core/template, page/html, page/html_head, page/html_header, page/template_links, core/text_list, page/html_wrapper, page/html_breadcrumbs, page/html_footer, core/messages, page/switch.
Some blocks like content, left, right etc. are of type core/text_list. When these blocks are rendered, all their child blocks are rendered automatically without the need to call getChildHtml() method.


Q 12.Where is the relation between configurable product and it’s simple product stored in database?

Ans.

In the 2 tables:
catalog_product_relation
catalog_product_superlink_table


Q 13.How will you log current collection’s SQL query?

Ans.

$collection->printLogQuery(true); 
OR
 $collection->getSelect()->__toString();
  
Q 14.How to get first item or last item from the collection?

Ans.
$collection->getFirstItem() and $collection->getLastItem();

  
 
 
 
 
  

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